We are Blue21, a global leader in floating projects with a positive impact. We have the largest open-source knowledge base on floating solutions in the world. We have made a huge part of our knowledge available on this page.

Reports & Books

KIVI: Floating Cities

Author: Jan van Kessel & Barbara Dal Bo Zanon

Floating City IJmeer

Author: Deltasync


Environmental Assessment Report: French Polynesia

Author: Blue21

Adaptive urban development

Author: Rutger de Graaf

Seasteading Implementation Plan

Author: DeltaSync

Realising a floating city

Author: Kelvin Ko

Cyclicity: A new direction to protect deltas and preserve marine ecosystems

Author: K.M. Czapiewska, B.Roeffen & R.E. de Graaf

Air cushion Supported Mega-Floaters 

Author: Jan van Kessel

Transportation systems in floating cities

Author: Barend Vreugdehil

Artificial Islands in The Law of the Sea

Author: Francesca Galea

De Drijvende Nutseenheid 

Author: Deltasync


Author: Blue21

Impact of box-type floating breakwater on motion response of hydrodynamically coupled floating platforms downstream

Author: Arnav Doss

Every Drop Counts: Environmentally Sound Technologies for Urban and Domestic Water Use Efficiency 

Author: TU Delft

[email protected]: A catalogue of technical requirements and best practices for the design of [email protected]

Author: Karina Czapiewska & Fen-Yu Lin

[email protected]: Demonstrator Design

Author: Barbara Dal Bo Zanon, Karina Czapiewska & David Kirkwood

[email protected]: Business Case [email protected]

Author: Bart Roeffen, Karina Czapiewska & Fen-Yu Lin

Innovations in urban water management to reduce the vulnerability of cities

Author: Rutger de Graaf


Scientific Articles

Potential of Floating Production for delta and coastal cities

Author: Barbara Dal Bo Zanon et al

Blauwe oplossingsruimte haalt Nederland uit de impasse

Author: Rutger de Graaf

Reducing global land scarcity with floating urban development and food production

Author: Bart Roeffen et al

Receptivity to transformative change in the Dutch urban water management Sector

Author: Rutger de Graaf et al

Potential of floating productive development for delta cities

Author: Barbara Dal Bo Zanon et al

Perspectives on innovation A survey of the Dutch urban water sector

Author: Rutger de Graaf et al

Innovative Water Quality and Ecology Monitoring Using Underwater Unmanned Vehicles: Feild Applications, Challenges & Feedback from Water Managers

Author: Rui L. Pedroso de Lima, Floris C. Boogard, Rutger de Graaf

Mapping Opportunities for Floating Urban Development in Port Cities

Author: Rutger de Graaf et al

Sustainable Urban Transformations & Sustainability Transitions; Conceptual Framework & Casestudy

Author: R.E. de Graaf, L. Ernst, Gert-Joost Peek, Derk Loorbach

Innovative floating bifacial photovoltaic solutions for inland water areas

Author: Bart Roeffen & Fen-Yu Lin



Floating Cities are no longer science fiction

Author: Blue21

Floating Production of energy and food as opportunity for coastal circular cities

Author: Blue21

Floating Cities for human and ecological progress monitored real time by aquatic drones

Author: Rutger de Graaf

Capacity Building

Author: Blue21

Our Services

Author: Blue21

Our Vision

Author: Blue21

Blue Revolution: A perspective for human and ecological development in the 21st century

Author: Rutger de Graaf

Indymo: Monitoring water quality and ecology with underwater drones

Author: Rui Lima


The impact of floating urbanisation on water quality and ecology

Author: Rutger de Graaf


A Blue Century on the Horizon: Paving the Waves Keynote

Author: Rutger de Graaf


Professional Publications

Global Trends in the development of maritime floating cities and future developments

Author: Karina Czapiewska

Blue21: ‘Onze toekomst is op het water’

Author: Karina Czapiewska

A Blue Quantum Leap: What Governance Options Do We Have?

Author: Rutger De Graaf

Weinig invloed op ecosystemen onder drijvende objecten

Author: Rutger De Graaf et al


The floating city as an ecosystem

Author: Van Uffelen, C. Rentmeester, S.

Building Cities on the Sea

Author: Jan van Kessel

Rette sich, wer kann.
Können wir?

Author: Rutger De Graaf

Creating floating cities- Utopia or a new perspective for
the future?
Author: Rutger De Graaf & Karina Czapiewska


Netherlands Water PartnershipFloating Solutions: A new tool in Dutch Delta Technology

Author: Netherlands Water Partnership




Were running out of land so lets build on water Rutger de Graaf at TEDxDelft

Blue21 Vision

Floating Cities with a positive impact on the planet

The Blue Revolution


Pavilion Film Deltasync

Floating Island French Polynesia

Top five things to know about the floating city project

Discovery Channel

Effects of floating urbanisation on water quality & ecology


Steden van de toekomst


Climate Science and Seasteading Solutions: Bart Roeffen- Blue Frontiers Podcast

Floating Real-Estate: Karina Czapiewska- Blue Frontiers Podcast

Floating Cities with a positive impact on the planet: Rutger De Graaf- Blue Frontiers Podcast

Should we build new cities at sea? -BBC Podcast


Real World Floating Architecture- Karina Czapiewska




Wonen op het water de oplossing voor het klimaatprobleem en de woningmarkt? - NPO Radio

Is de stad van de toekomst een drijvende stad?

Adpating to a warmer world - BBC Radio

Low-lying Netherlands is exporting its water management expertise

Karina Czapiewska van Blue21 legt uit wat eer getest wordt.

Schiphol op zee goed idee? - NPO Radio


Sustain RCA- Radical New communities- Rutger de Graaf

Inaugural lecture ‘Blue Revolution’- Rutger de Graaf

INDYMO onderwaterdrone – Rutger de Graaf

KIVI Symposium  – Looking back from 2050 – Jan van Kessel

Sketchcity Rotterdam- Rutger de Graaf

Environmental Framework for Floating Islands- Karina Czapiewska

Architectural Opportunities- Bart Roeffen

The effects of floating urban development on water quality and ecology – Floris Boogaard

WCFS2020 – Rutger De Graaf

WCFS2020 – Bart Roeffen

WCFS2020 – Fen-Yu (Vicky) Lin


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